Yet another study on the population dynamics of the Bluefin Tuna, soon to be published on Conservation Letters, points to the almost inevitable collapse of the Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic stocks, even if a complete moratorium were to be alexmiccaitrodcu.icurdetacarrbidkiestaldemenputar.infoinfo this possibility seems unlikely: the current management plan of ICCAT (the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic. Nov 05, · A negligible antiaromatic destabilization is found in planar D 4h 1,3,5,7‐cyclooctatetraene with alternating bond lengths. The same is also true for the delocalized D 8h structure, which has a stabilization energy of only 3–4 kcal mol −alexmiccaitrodcu.icurdetacarrbidkiestaldemenputar.infoinfoing to quantum‐chemical calculations, the ground state of 1 is expected to be the planar C 2v ‐symmetric (1,1) singlet diradical 1′. Subject: Digital Sender Created Date: 12/31/ PM.
While the sample is being collected, run a blank as follows: To a ml Erlenmeyer flask, add ml of zinc acetate solution, Titrate, while stirring, with 0. Add starch, and continue titrating until the blue color disappears. Analyze a blank with each sample, as the blank titer has been observed to change over the course of a day.
Iodine titration of zinc acetate solutions is difficult to perform because the solution turns slightly white in color near the end point, and the disappearance of the blue color is hard to recognize. In addition, a blue color may reappear in the solution about 30 to 45 seconds after the titration endpoint is reached.
This should not be taken to mean the original endpoint was in error. It is recommended that persons conducting this test perform several titrations to be able to correctly identify the endpoint. The importance of this should be recognized because the results of this analytical procedure are extremely sensitive to errors in titration. Sample treatment is similar to the blank treatment.
Before detaching the stems from the bottoms of the impingers, add Add 2 ml HCl solution through the stems, dividing it as with the iodine. Disconnect the sampling line, and store the impingers for 30 minutes. At the end of 30 minutes, rinse the impinger stems into the impinger bottoms. Titrate the impinger contents with 0. Do not transfer the contents of the impinger to a flask because this may result in a loss of iodine and cause a positive bias. Conduct a post-test critical orifice calibration run using the calibration procedures outlined in section If the Q std obtained before and after the test differs by more than 5 percent, void the sample; if not, proceed to perform the calculations.
Same as Method 11, sections Standardize the 0. Titrate immediately with 0. Add 3 ml starch solution, and titrate until the blue color just disappears. Repeat the titration until replicate analyses agree within 0. Take the average volume of Na 2 S 2 O 3 consumed to calculate the normality to three decimal figures using Equation 16A Titrate with standard 0. Add 3 ml starch solution, and continue titrating until the blue color just disappears. If the normality of the iodine tested is not 0. Repeat the titration until replicate values agree within 0.
Take the average volume to calculate the normality to three decimal figures using Equation 16A Calibrate the critical orifice using the sampling train shown in Figure 16A-4 but without the H 2 S cylinder and vent rotameter.
Connect the soap bubble meter to the Teflon line that is connected to the first impinger. Turn on the pump, Fortu Sicksninenine B - Various - CIMPosium - Volume 7 (CD) adjust the needle valve until the vacuum is higher than the critical vacuum determined in section Make three runs, and record the data listed in Table 16A Use these data to calculate the volumetric flow rate of the orifice. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Washington, DC. American Public Health Association.
American Society for Testing and Materials. Part Water, Atmospheric Analysis. Philadelphia, PA. Blosser, R. Technical Bulletin No. May Oglesby, and A.
Curtis, F. February Gellman, I. October Margeson, J. Knoll, and M. Special Report New York, NY. August Technical Bulletin Number January Draft Report. Therefore, to obtain reliable results, persons using this method should have a knowledge of at least the following additional test methods: Method 6C, Method 16, and Method 16A.
This method is applicable for determining TRS emissions from recovery furnaces boilerslime kilns, and smelt dissolving tanks at kraft pulp mills, and from other sources when specified in an applicable subpart of the regulations.
The SO 2 is removed selectively from the sample using a citrate buffer solution. Proper use of the particulate filter, described in section 6. Acceptable systems must demonstrate that they have eliminated this interference by some procedure such as eluting these compounds before the SO 2. Compliance with this requirement can be demonstrated by submitting chromatograms of calibration gases with and without CO 2 in diluent gas. The sampling train is shown in Figure 16B Modifications to the apparatus are accepted provided the system performance check in section 8.
Same as in Method 16A, sections 6. Same as in Method 16, sections 6. Same as in Method 16, section 6. Other columns with demonstrated ability to resolve SO 2 and be free from known interferences are acceptable alternatives. Same as in Method 16, section 7. SO 2 permeation tube gravimetrically calibrated and certified at some convenient operating temperature.
These tubes consist of hermetically sealed FEP Teflon tubing in which a liquefied gaseous substance is enclosed. In place of SO 2 permeation tubes, cylinder gases containing SO 2 in nitrogen may be used for calibration. The cylinder gas concentration must be verified according to section 8.
Verify the concentration by Method 11, the procedure discussed in section For the wet-chemical methods, the standard deviation should not exceed 5 percent on at least three minute runs. Gas containing less than 50 ppbv reduced sulfur compounds and less than 10 ppmv total hydrocarbons.
The gas may be generated from a clean-air system that purifies ambient air and consists of the following components: diaphragm pump, silica gel drying tube, activated charcoal tube, and flow rate measuring device.
Gas from a compressed air cylinder is also acceptable. Same as in Method 15, section 8. Before any source sampling is performed, conduct a system performance check as detailed in section 8. Although this test is optional, it would significantly reduce the possibility of rejecting tests as a result of failing the post-test performance check.
At the completion of the pretest system performance check, insert the sampling probe into the test port making certain that no dilution air enters the stack though the port.
Condition the entire system with sample for a minimum of 15 minutes before beginning analysis. If the sample is diluted, determine the dilution factor as in section Determine the concentration of SO 2 directly from the calibration curves or from the equation for the least-squares line, Fortu Sicksninenine B - Various - CIMPosium - Volume 7 (CD). Same as in Method 16A, section 8.
A sufficient number of sample injections should be made so that the precision requirements of section Alternatively, the concentration may be calculated using the equation for the least-squares line. This limit is extended by diluting the sample gas before analysis or by reducing the sample aliquot size.
For sources with emission levels between 10 and ppm, the measuring range can be best extended by reducing the sample size. A series of three consecutive injections of the sample calibration gas, at any dilution, must produce results which do not vary by Imagination Brass* - Band Of The 1990s (Vinyl, LP) than 5 percent from the mean of the three injections.
The calibration drift determined from the mean of the three injections made at the beginning and end of any run or series of runs within a hour period must not exceed 5 percent. Losses through the sample transport system must be measured and a correction factor developed to adjust the calibration accuracy to percent. This difference was not determined to be significant. Same as in Method 16, section Draft available from the authors.
Method 16C is a procedure for measuring total reduced sulfur TRS in stationary source emissions using a continuous instrumental analyzer. Quality assurance and quality control requirements are included to assure that you, the tester, collect data of known quality.
You must document your adherence to these specific requirements for equipment, supplies, sample collection and analysis, calculations, and data analysis. This method does not completely describe all equipment, supplies, and sampling and analytical procedures you will need but refers to Empty Bed Blues - Buddy Tate / Claude Hopkins - Buddy And Claude (CD) methods for some of the details.
Therefore, to obtain reliable results, you should also have a thorough knowledge of these additional test methods which are found in appendix A to this part:. Adherence to the requirements described in Method 16C will enhance the quality of the data obtained.
This method is a combination of the sampling procedures of Method 16A and the analytical procedures of Method 6C referenced in Method 7Ewith minor modifications to facilitate their use together. Analyzer calibration error, Calibration curve, Calibration gas, Low-level gas, Mid-level gas, High-level gas, Calibration drift, Calibration span, Data recorder, Direct calibration mode, Gas analyzer, Interference check, Measurement system, Response time, Run, System calibration mode, System performance check, and Test are the same as used in Methods 16A and 6C.
Compounds like carbonyl sulfide, which is partially oxidized to SO 2 and may be present in a lime kiln exit stack, would be a positive interferent. Interferences may vary among instruments, and instrument-specific interferences must be evaluated through the interference check.
It is the responsibility of the user to establish appropriate safety and health practices before performing this test method. Hydrogen sulfide is a flammable, poisonous gas with the odor of rotten eggs. Hydrogen sulfide is extremely hazardous and can cause collapse, coma, and death within a few seconds of one or two inhalations at sufficient concentrations. It is the responsibility of the user of this test method to establish appropriate safety and health practices.
The measurement system is similar to those applicable components in Methods 16A and 6C. Modifications to the apparatus are accepted provided the performance criteria in section A flexible thermocouple or other suitable temperature measuring device must be placed between the Teflon tubing and the fiber strips so that the temperature can be monitored to prevent softening of the probe. The probe must be sheathed in stainless steel to provide in-stack rigidity. Teflon elbow bored out must be attached to the inlet of the probe, and a 2.
The probe is depicted in Figure 16A-2 of Method 16A. Impinger parts and tubing may be available through Savillex or other suppliers. The first two impingers contain ml of citrate buffer, and the third impinger is initially dry.
Alternative combustion tubes are acceptable provided they are shown to combust TRS at concentrations encountered during tests.
A leak-free pump is required to pull the sample gas through the system at a flow rate sufficient to minimize the response time of the measurement system and must be constructed of material that is non-reactive to the gas it contacts. For dilution-type measurement systems, an eductor pump may be used to create a vacuum that draws the sample through a critical orifice at a constant rate.
The calibration gas manifold must allow the introduction of calibration gases either directly to the gas analyzer in direct calibration mode or into the measurement system, at the probe, in system calibration mode, or both, depending upon the type of system used.
In system calibration mode, the system must be able to flood the sampling probe and vent excess gas. Alternatively, calibration gases may be introduced at the calibration valve following the probe. Maintain a constant pressure in the gas manifold.
For in-stack dilution-type systems, a gas dilution subsystem is required to transport large volumes of purified air to the sample probe, and a probe controller is needed to maintain the proper dilution ratio. The sample gas manifold diverts a portion of the sample to the analyzer, delivering the remainder to the by-pass discharge vent.
The manifold should also be able to introduce calibration gases directly to the analyzer. The manifold must be made of material that is non-reactive to SO 2 and be configured to safely discharge the bypass gas. You must use an instrument that uses an ultraviolet, non-dispersive infrared, fluorescence, or other detection principle to continuously measure SO 2 in the gas stream provided it meets the performance specifications in section A strip chart recorder, computerized data acquisition system, digital recorder, or data logger for recording measurement data must be used.
The KMnO 4 test for oxidizable organic matter may be omitted when high concentrations of organic matter are not expected to be present. Refer to section 7. Example calibration gas mixtures are listed below. You must use H 2 S ppmv or less stored in aluminum cylinders with the concentration certified by the manufacturer. Hydrogen sulfide in nitrogen is more stable than H 2 S in air, but air may be used as the balance gas.
Alternatively, H 2 S recovery gas generated from a permeation device gravimetrically calibrated and certified at some convenient operating temperature may be used. The permeation rate of the device must be such that at the appropriate dilution gas flow rate, an H 2 S concentration can be generated in the range of the stack gas or within 20 percent of the emission standard.
Examples of test gases for the interference check are listed in Table 7E-3 of Method 7E. Obtain a certificate from the gas manufacturer documenting the quality of the gas. Confirm that the manufacturer certification is complete and current. Ensure that your calibration gas certifications have not expired. This documentation should be available on-site for inspection. To the extent practicable, select a high-level gas concentration that will result in the measured emissions being between 20 and percent of the calibration span.
After you have assembled, prepared, and calibrated your sampling system and analyzer, you must conduct a 3-point analyzer calibration error test before the first run and again after any failed system performance check or failed drift test to ensure the calibration is acceptable.
Introduce the low- mid- and high-level calibration gases sequentially to the analyzer in direct calibration mode. For each calibration gas, calculate the analyzer calibration error using Equation 16C-1 in section The calibration error for the low- mid- and high-level gases must not exceed 5.
If the calibration error specification is not met, take corrective action and repeat the test until an acceptable 3-point calibration is achieved. A system performance check is done 1 to validate the sampling train components and procedure prior to testingand 2 to validate a test run after a run. You must conduct a performance check in the field prior to testing, and after each 3-hour run or after three 1-hour runs. A performance check consists of sampling and analyzing a known concentration of H 2 S system performance check gas and comparing the analyzed Live From Planet Earth - 1773 - Wisdm O.N.E.
& Just J (CD) to the known concentration. To conduct the system performance check, mix the system performance check gas Section 7. Alternatively, ultra-high purity UHP grade air may be used. Adjust the gas flow rates to generate an H 2 S concentration in the range of the stack gas or within 20 percent of the applicable standard and an oxygen concentration greater than 1 percent at a total flow rate of at least 2.
Use Equation 16A-3 from Method 16A to calculate the concentration of system performance check gas generated. Calibrate the flow rate from both gas sources with a soap bubble flow meter so that the diluted concentration of H 2 S can be accurately calculated. Alternatively, mass flow controllers with documented calibrations may be used if UHP grade air is being used.
Sample duration should be sufficiently long to ensure a stable response from the analyzer. Analyze in the same manner as the emission samples. Collect the sample through the probe of the sampling train using a manifold or other suitable device that will ensure extraction of a representative sample. The TRS sample concentration measured between system performance checks is corrected by the average of the pre- and post-system performance checks. Same as in Method 7E, section 8.
Condition the citrate buffer scrubbing solution by pulling stack gas through the Teflon impingers as described in section 8. After the complete measurement system has been set up at the site and deemed to be operational, the following procedures must be completed before sampling is initiated. Appropriate leak-check procedures must be employed to verify the integrity of all components, sample lines, and connections.
For components upstream of the sample pump, attach the probe end of the sample line to a manometer or vacuum gauge, start the pump and pull a vacuum greater than 50 mm 2 in.
Hg, close off the pump outlet, and then stop the pump and ascertain that there is no leak for 1 minute. For components after the pump, apply a slight positive pressure and check for leaks by applying a liquid detergent in water, for example at each joint. Bubbling indicates the presence of a leak. A system performance check using the test gas Section 7. Condition the sampling system and citrate buffer solution for a minimum of 15 minutes before beginning analysis.
Begin sampling and analysis. A source test consists of three test runs. A test run shall consist of a single sample collected over a 3-hour period or three separate 1-hour samples collected over a D.C.
LaRue - Star Baby (Vinyl, LP, Album) not to exceed six hours. Perform a post-run system performance check before replacing the citrate buffer solution and particulate filter and before the probe is cleaned. If this limit is exceeded, the intervening run is considered invalid. After a run or series of runs, not to exceed a hour period after initial calibration, perform a calibration drift test using a calibration gas preferably the level that best approximates the sample concentration in direct calibration mode.
This drift must not differ from the initial calibration error percent by more than 3. If the drift exceeds this limit, the intervening run or runs are considered valid, but a new analyzer calibration error test must be performed and passed before continuing sampling. Perform the initial 3-point calibration error test as described in section 8.
The specification in section 13 Mona Lisa be met. Conduct an initial system performance test described in section 8.
After the test commences, a system performance check is required after each run. You must include a copy of the manufacturer's certification of the calibration gases used in the testing as part of the test report. Because sample collection and analysis are performed together see section 8.
For non-dilution systems, use Equation 16C-1 to calculate the analyzer calibration error for the low- mid- and high-level calibration gases. Use Equation 16C-3 to calculate the calibration drift at a single concentration level after a run or series of runs not to exceed a hr period from initial calibration.
Compare the single-level calibration gas error ACE n to the original error obtained for that gas in the initial analyzer calibration error test ACE i. For each sample or test run, calculate the arithmetic average of SO 2 concentration values e.
At each calibration gas level low, mid, and highthe calibration error must either not exceed 5. Each system performance check must not deviate from the system performance gas concentration by more than 20 percent. The calibration drift at the end of any run or series of runs within a hour period must not differ by more than 3. For the analyzer, the total interference response i. Any interference is also acceptable if the sum of the responses does not exceed 0.
Therefore, to obtain reliable results, persons using this method should have a thorough knowledge of at least the following additional test methods: Method 1, Method 2, Method 3, Method 5.
Particulate matter is not an absolute quantity. It is a function of temperature and pressure. Of the two variables i. Thus, where Method 5 is specified in an applicable subpart of the standard, PM is defined with respect to temperature. This equipment is somewhat cumbersome and requires care in its operation. Therefore, where PM concentrations over the normal range of temperature associated with a specified source category are known to be independent of temperature, it is desirable to eliminate the glass probe and the heating systems, and to sample at stack temperature.
This Fortu Sicksninenine B - Various - CIMPosium - Volume 7 (CD) is applicable for the determination of PM emissions, where PM concentrations are known to be independent of temperature over the normal range of temperatures characteristic of emissions from a specified source category.
It is intended to be used only when specified by an applicable subpart of the standards, and only within the applicable temperature limits if specifiedor when otherwise approved by the Administrator.
This method is not applicable to stacks that contain liquid droplets or are saturated with water vapor. In addition, this method shall not be used as written if the projected cross-sectional area of the probe extension-filter holder assembly covers more than 5 percent of the stack cross-sectional area see section 8. The PM mass is determined gravimetrically after the removal of uncombined water.
A schematic of the sampling train used in this method is shown in Figure The sampling train components and operation and maintenance are very similar to Method 5, which should be consulted for details. Same as in Method 5, sections 6. The in-stack filter holder shall be constructed of borosilicate or quartz glass, or stainless steel.
If a gasket is used, it shall be made of silicone rubber, Teflon, or stainless steel. Other holder and gasket materials may be used, subject to the approval of the Administrator.
The filter holder shall be designed to provide a positive seal against leakage from the outside or around the filter. Same as in Method 5, section 6. Note that the 1. ID nozzle. If the sampling train is designed for sampling at higher flow rates than that described in APTD, thus necessitating the use of larger sized nozzles, the free-space shall be 1. It is recommended that the impinger system or alternatives described in Method Urge For Going - George Hamilton IV - The Best Of George Hamilton IV (Vinyl, LP) be used to determine the moisture content of the stack gas.
Flexible tubing may be used between the probe extension and condenser. Long tubing lengths may affect the moisture determination. Glass weighing dishes, desiccator, analytical balance, balance, beakers, hygrometer, temperature sensor.
Filters, silica gel, water, crushed ice, stopcock grease. Same as in Method 5, sections 7. Thimble glass fiber filters may also be used. Acetone reagent grade. Same as in Method 5, section 7. Acetone and Desiccant. Same as in Method 5, section 8. Calculate the estimated cross-section blockage, as shown in Figure If the blockage exceeds 5 percent of the duct cross sectional area, the tester has the following options exist: 1 a suitable out-of-stack filtration method may be used instead of in-stack filtration; or 2 a special in-stack arrangement, in which the sampling and velocity measurement sites are separate, may be used; for details concerning this approach, consult with the Administrator see also Reference 1 in section Select a probe extension length such that all traverse points can be sampled.
For large stacks, consider sampling from opposite sides of the stack to reduce the length of probes. Be sure that the filter is properly centered and the gasket properly placed so as not to allow the sample gas stream to circumvent the filter. Check filter for tears after assembly is completed. Mark the probe extension with heat resistant tape or by some other method to denote the proper distance into the stack or duct for each sampling point.
Assemble the train as in Figureusing a very light coat of silicone grease on all ground glass joints and greasing only the outer portion see APTD to avoid possibility of contamination by the silicone grease.
Place crushed ice around the impingers. To do this, plug the inlet to the probe nozzle with a material that will be able to withstand the stack temperature. Insert the filter holder into the stack and wait approximately 5 minutes or longer, if necessary to allow the system to come to equilibrium with the temperature of the stack gas stream. The operation is the same as in Method 5. Use a data sheet such as the one shown in Figure of Method 5, except that the filter holder temperature is not recorded.
Same as in Method 5, section Allow the assembly to cool. Do not cap off the probe tip tightly while the sampling train is cooling down as this would create a vacuum in the filter holder, forcing condenser water backward. Be careful not to lose any condensate, if present.
Remove the umbilical cord from the condenser outlet and cap the outlet. If a flexible line is used between the first impinger or condenser and the probe extension, disconnect the line at the probe extension and let any condensed water or liquid drain into the impingers or condenser. Disconnect the probe extension from the condenser; cap the probe extension outlet.
After wiping off the silicone grease, cap off the condenser inlet. Ground glass stoppers, plastic caps, or serum caps whichever are appropriate may be used to close these openings.
This area should be clean and protected from the wind so that the chances of contaminating or losing the sample will be minimized.
Treat the sample as discussed in Method 5, section 8. The calibrations of the probe nozzle, pitot tube, metering system, temperature sensors, and barometer are the same as in Method 5, sections Analytical data should be recorded on a form similar to that shown in Figure of Method 5.
Vollaro, R. Research Triangle Park, NC. November This method is not inclusive with respect to specifications e. Therefore, to obtain reliable results, persons using this method should have a thorough knowledge of at least the following additional test methods: Method 1, Method 2, Method 3. This method should not be attempted by persons unfamiliar with the performance characteristics of gas chromatography, nor by those persons who are unfamiliar with source sampling.
Particular care should be exercised in the area of safety concerning choice of equipment The Girl In My Dreams - Various - Hollywood Rock N Roll Record Hop (Vinyl, LP) operation in potentially explosive atmospheres. While designed for ppm level sources, some detectors are quite capable of detecting compounds at ambient levels, e. Some other types of detectors are evolving such that the sensitivity and applicability may well be in the ppb range in only a few years.
The lower range of this method is determined by the sampling system; adsorbents may be used to concentrate the sample, thus lowering the limit of detection below the 1 part per million ppm typically achievable with direct interface or bag sampling.
The upper limit is governed by GC detector saturation or column overloading; the upper range can be extended by dilution of sample with an inert gas or by using smaller volume gas sampling loops. The upper limit can also be governed by condensation of higher boiling compounds. The sensitivity limit for a compound is defined as the minimum detectable concentration of that compound, or the concentration that produces a signal-to-noise ratio of three to one.
The minimum detectable concentration is determined during the presurvey calibration for each compound. The major organic components of a gas mixture are separated by gas chromatography GC and individually quantified by flame ionization, photoionization, electron capture, or other appropriate detection principles. The retention times of each separated component are compared with those of known compounds under identical conditions.
Therefore, the analyst confirms the identity and approximate concentrations of the organic emission components beforehand. With this information, the analyst then prepares or purchases commercially available standard mixtures to calibrate the GC under conditions identical to those of the samples. The analyst also determines the need for sample dilution to avoid detector saturation, gas stream filtration to eliminate particulate matter, and prevention of moisture condensation.
To adjust gaseous organic concentrations when water vapor is present in the sample, water vapor concentrations are determined for those samples, and a correction factor is applied. The analyzer users manual should be consulted for specific precautions to be taken with regard to the analytical procedure. Considering safety flame hazards and the source conditions, select an appropriate sampling and analysis procedure Section 8.
In situations where a hydrogen flame is a hazard and no intrinsically safe GC is suitable, use the flexible bag collection technique or an adsorption technique. In this procedure, the bags are filled by evacuating the rigid air-tight container holding the bags. Use a field sample data sheet as shown in Figure Collect triplicate samples from each sample location.
Stainless steel, Pyrex glass, or Teflon tubing probe, according to the duct temperature, with Teflon tubing of sufficient length to connect to the sample bag. Use stainless steel or Teflon unions to connect probe and sample line. Leakless Teflon-coated diaphragm-type pump or equivalent. Tube filled with activated charcoal, with glass wool plugs at each end, to adsorb organic vapors.
To obtain a sample, assemble the sample train as shown in Figure Leak-check both the bag and the container. Connect the vacuum line from the needle valve to the Teflon sample line from the probe.
Place the end of the probe at the centroid of the stack or at a point no closer to the walls than 1 in. Set the flow rate so that the final volume of the sample is approximately 80 percent of the bag capacity. After allowing sufficient time to purge the line several times, connect the vacuum line to the bag, and evacuate until the rotameter indicates no flow.
Then position the sample and vacuum lines for sampling, and begin the actual sampling, keeping the rate proportional to the stack velocity. As a precaution, direct the gas exiting the rotameter away from sampling personnel. At the end of the sample period, shut off the pump, disconnect the sample line from the bag, and disconnect the vacuum line from the bag container. Record the source temperature, barometric pressure, ambient temperature, sampling flow rate, and initial and final sampling time on the data sheet shown in Figure Protect the bag and its container from sunlight.
Record the time lapsed between sample collection and analysis, and then conduct the recovery procedure in Section 8. Follow 8. Use a pump and needle valve constructed of inert material not affected by the stack gas. Leak-check the system, and then purge with stack gas before connecting to the previously evacuated bag. Use this method whenever there is a possibility of an explosion due to pumps, heated probes, or other flame producing equipment. In the event that condensation is observed in the bag while collecting the sample and a direct interface system cannot be used, heat the bag during collection and maintain it at a suitably elevated temperature during all subsequent operations.
Note: Take care to leak-check the system prior to the dilutions so as not to create a potentially explosive atmosphere.
As an alternative, collect the sample gas, and simultaneously dilute it in the bag. Then transport the bag as rapidly as possible to the analytical area while maintaining the heating, or cover the box with an insulating blanket.
Be sure that the method of heating the box and the control for the heating circuit are compatible with the safety restrictions required in each area. Prefill the bag with a known quantity of inert gas. Meter the inert gas into the bag according to the procedure for the preparation of gas concentration standards of volatile liquid materials Section Take the partly filled bag to the source, and meter the source gas into the bag through heated sampling lines and a heated flowmeter, or Teflon positive displacement pump.
Verify the dilution factors before sampling each bag through dilution and analysis of gases of known concentration. Same as section 8. A minimum of three gas standards are required. Prepare the GC so that gas can be drawn through the sample valve. Flush the sample loop with calibration gas mixture, and activate the valve sample pressure at the inlet to the GC introduction valve should be similar during calibration as during actual sample analysis.
Obtain at least three chromatograms for the mixture. The results are acceptable when the peak areas for the three injections agree to within 5 percent of their average. If they do not agree, run additional samples or correct the analytical techniques until this requirement is met. Then analyze the other two calibration mixtures in the same manner. Prepare a calibration curve as described in section Analyze each bag sample three times. Record the data in Figure After all samples have been analyzed, repeat the analysis of the mid-level calibration gas for each compound.
Compare the average response factor of the pre- and post-test analysis for each compound. If the two response factor averages pre-and post-test differ by less than 5 percent from their mean value, the tester has the option of using only the pre-test calibration curve to generate the Zé - Tania Maria - Brazil With My Soul (Vinyl, LP, Album) values.
Measure the ambient temperature and barometric pressure near the bag. From a water saturation vapor pressure table, determine and record the water vapor content of the bag as a decimal figure. Assume the relative humidity to be percent unless a lesser value is known. If the bag has been maintained at an elevated temperature as described in section 8. From the calibration curve described in section 8.
Calculate the concentration C c in ppm, dry basis, of each organic in the sample using Equation in section The direct interface procedure can be used provided that the moisture content of the gas does not interfere with Fortu Sicksninenine B - Various - CIMPosium - Volume 7 (CD) analysis procedure, the physical requirements of the equipment can be met at the site, and the source gas concentration falls within the linear range of the detector.
Adhere to Hurt It - Chris Lowe (2) - The Black Life (CD, Album) safety requirements with this method. Constructed of stainless steel, Pyrex glass, or Teflon tubing as dictated by duct temperature and reactivity of target compounds. A filter or glass wool plug may be needed if particulate is present in the stack gas.
To connect sample line to gas sampling valve on GC instrument and to pump unit used to withdraw source gas. Use a quick connect or equivalent on the cylinder or bag containing calibration gas to allow connection of the calibration gas to the gas sampling valve. Potentiometer or digital thermometer, to measure source temperature and probe temperature. Of two-position, six-port design, to allow sample loop to be purged with source gas or to direct source gas into the GC instrument.
To adsorb organic vapor vented from the source to prevent exposure of personnel to source gas. Capable of being moved into the field, with detector, heated gas sampling valve, column required to complete separation of desired components, and option for temperature programming. Calibrate the GC using the procedures in section 8. To obtain a stack gas sample, assemble the sampling system as shown in Figure Make sure all connections are tight.
Turn on the Fortu Sicksninenine B - Various - CIMPosium - Volume 7 (CD) and sample line heaters. Conduct a 3-point calibration of the GC by analyzing each gas mixture in triplicate. Generate a calibration curve.
Place the inlet of the probe at the centroid of the duct, or at a point no closer to the walls than 1 m, and draw source gas into the probe, heated line, and sample loop.
After thorough flushing, analyze the stack gas sample using the same conditions as for the calibration gas mixture. For each run, sample, analyze, and record five consecutive samples. A test consists of three runs five samples per run times three runs, for a total of fifteen samples. For each calibration standard, compare the pre- and post-test average response factors RF for each compound. If the two calibration RF values pre- and post-analysis differ by more than 5 percent from their mean value, then analyze the other calibration gas levels for that compound and determine the stack gas sample concentrations by comparison to both calibration curves this is done by preparing a calibration curve using all the pre- and post-test calibration gas mixture values.
If the two calibration RF values differ by less than 5 percent from their mean value, the tester has the option of using only the pre-test calibration curve to generate the concentration values. Record this calibration data and the other required data on the data sheet shown in Figuredeleting the dilution gas information. Take care to draw all samples and calibration mixtures through the sample loop at the same pressure. Use Method 4 to measure the stack gas moisture content. Source samples that contain a high concentration of organic materials may require dilution prior to analysis to prevent saturating the GC detector.
The apparatus required for this direct interface procedure is basically the same as that described in the section 8. The apparatus is arranged so that either a or dilution of the source gas can be directed to the chromatograph. A pump of larger capacity is also required, and this pump must be heated and placed in the system between the sample line and the dilution apparatus. The equipment required in addition to that specified for the direct interface system is as follows:.
As an option, calibrated flowmeters can be used in conjunction with Teflon-coated diaphragm pumps. Gas can be nitrogen or clean dry air, depending on the nature of the source gases. The box should be equipped with quick connect fittings to facilitate connection of: 1 the heated sample line from the probe, 2 the gas sampling valve, 3 the calibration gas mixtures, And There Will Be A Swarm Of Hornets 4 diluent gas lines.
A schematic diagram of the components and connections is shown in Figure The heated box shown in Figure is designed to receive a heated line from the probe.
An optional design is to build a probe unit that attaches directly to the heated box. In this way, the heated box contains the controls for the probe heaters, or, if the box is placed against the duct being sampled, it may be possible to eliminate the probe heaters.
In either case, a heated Teflon line is used to connect the heated box to the gas sampling valve on the chromatograph. Care must be taken to leak-check the system prior to the dilutions so as not to create a potentially explosive atmosphere.
Vent the source gas from the gas sampling valve directly to the charcoal filter, eliminating the pump and rotameter. Heat the sample probe, sample line, and heated box. Insert the probe and source thermocouple at the centroid of the duct, or to a point no closer to the walls than 1 m.
Calibrate the GC through the dilution system by following the procedures in section 8. Determine the concentration of the diluted calibration gas using the dilution factor and the certified concentration of the calibration gas.
Record the pertinent data on the data sheet shown in Figure Record all data and report the results to the audit supervisor. Any commercially available adsorbent is allowed for the purposes of this method, as long as the recovery study criteria in section 8.
Help in choosing the adsorbent may be found by calling the distributor, or the tester may refer to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH methods for the particular organics to be sampled. For some adsorbents, the principal interferent will be water vapor. If water vapor is thought to be a problem, the tester may place a midget impinger in an ice bath before the adsorbent tubes. If this option is chosen, the water catch in the midget impinger shall be analyzed for the target compounds.
Also, the spike for the recovery study in section 8. The combined recovery add the recovered amount in the impinger and the adsorbent tubes to calculate R shall then meet the criteria in section 8.
Post-test leak-checks are not allowed for this technique since this can result in sample contamination. Borosilicate glass or stainless steel, approximately 6-mm ID, with a heating system if water condensation is a problem, and a filter either in-stack or out-of-stack, heated to stack temperature to remove particulate matter.
In most instances, a plug of glass wool is a satisfactory filter. To connect probe to adsorption tubes. Use a material that exhibits minimal sample adsorption. Flow controlled, constant rate pump, with a set of limiting sonic orifices. Precleaned adsorbent, with mass of adsorbent to be determined by calculating breakthrough volume and expected concentration in the stack. Accurate to 5 mm Hg, to measure atmospheric pressure during sampling and pump calibration.
Record the ambient temperature and barometric pressure. Then, during sampling, use the rotameter to verify that the pump and orifice sampling rate remains constant. Minimize the length of flexible tubing between the probe and adsorption tubes. Several adsorption tubes can be connected in series, if the extra adsorptive capacity is needed. Adsorption tubes should be maintained vertically during the test in order to prevent channeling.
Provide the gas sample to the sample system at a pressure sufficient for the limiting orifice to function as a sonic orifice.
Record the total time and sample flow rate or the number of pump strokesthe barometric pressure, and ambient temperature.
Obtain a total sample volume commensurate with the expected concentration s of the volatile organic s present and recommended sample loading factors weight sample per weight adsorption media. Laboratory tests prior to actual sampling may be necessary to predetermine this volume. If water vapor is present in the sample at concentrations above 2 to 3 percent, the adsorptive capacity may be severely reduced. Operate the gas chromatograph according to the manufacturer's instructions.
After establishing optimum conditions, verify and document these conditions during all operations. Calibrate the instrument and then analyze the emission samples. If using thermal desorption, obtain calibration gases using the procedures in section If using solvent extraction, prepare liquid standards in the desorption solvent.
Use a minimum of three different standards; select the concentrations to bracket the expected average sample concentration. Perform the calibration before and after each day's sample analyses using the procedures in section 8. If sample breakthrough is thought to be a problem, a routine procedure for determining breakthrough is to analyze the primary and backup portions of the adsorption tubes separately.
If the backup portion exceeds 10 percent of the total amount primary and Out In The Park - Clinton Sparks & Eminem - Anger Management 3 (Cassette)it is usually a sign of sample breakthrough. For the purposes of this method, only the recovery efficiency value Section 8. Perform this check immediately after sampling with all sampling train components in place.
Use the bubble-tube flowmeter to measure the pump volume flow rate with the orifice used in the test sampling, and record the result. If it has changed by more than 5 but less than 20 percent, calculate an average flow rate for the test. If the flow rate has changed by more than 20 percent, recalibrate the pump and repeat the sampling. Correct all sample volumes to standard conditions.
If a sample dilution system has been used, multiply the results by the appropriate dilution ratio. Correct all results according to the applicable procedure in section 8.
Report results as ppm by volume, dry basis. At the completion of the field analysis portion of the study, ensure that the data sheets shown in Figure have been completed. Summarize this data on the data sheets shown in Figure After conducting the presurvey and identifying all of the pollutants of interest, conduct the appropriate recovery study during the test based on the sampling system chosen for the compounds of interest.
If the procedures in section 8. Upon successful completion of the appropriate calibration procedure, attach the mid-level calibration gas for at least one target compound to the inlet of the probe or as close as possible to the inlet of the probe, but before the filter. Repeat the calibration procedure by sampling and analyzing the mid-level calibration gas through the entire sampling and analytical system in triplicate.
The mean of the calibration gas response sampled through the probe shall be within 10 percent of the analyzer response. If the difference in the two means is greater than 10 percent, check for leaks throughout the sampling system and repeat the analysis of the standard through the sampling system until this criterion is met. After analyzing all three bag samples, choose one of the bag samples and tag this bag as the spiked bag.
Spike the chosen bag sample with a known mixture gaseous or liquid of all of the target pollutants. The theoretical concentration, in ppm, of each spiked compound in the bag shall be 40 to 60 percent of the average concentration measured in the three bag samples.
If a target compound was not detected in the bag samples, the concentration of that compound to be spiked shall be 5 times the limit of detection for that compound. Store the spiked bag for the same period of time as the bag samples collected in the field.
After the appropriate storage time has passed, analyze the spiked bag three times. Calculate the average fraction recovered R of each spiked target compound with the equation in section If the R value does not meet this criterion for a target compound, the sampling technique is not acceptable for that compound, and therefore another sampling technique shall be evaluated for acceptance by repeating the recovery study with another sampling technique.
Report the R value in the test report and correct all field measurements with the calculated R value for that compound by using the equation in section If following the adsorption tube procedure in section 8.
Set up two identical sampling trains. Collocate the two sampling probes in the stack. The probes shall be placed in the same horizontal plane, where the first probe tip is 2.
One of the sampling trains shall be designated the spiked train and the other the unspiked train. Spike all of the compounds of interest in gaseous or liquid form onto the adsorbent tube s in the spiked train before sampling.
The mass of each spiked compound shall be 40 to 60 percent of the mass expected to be collected with the unspiked train. Sample the stack gas into the two trains simultaneously. Analyze the adsorbents from the two trains utilizing identical analytical procedures and instrumentation. Determine the fraction of spiked compound recovered R using the equations in section In order for the adsorbent tube sampling and analytical procedure to be acceptable for a compound, 0.
If the average R value does not meet this criterion for a target compound, the sampling technique is not acceptable for that compound, and therefore another sampling technique shall be evaluated for acceptance by repeating the recovery study with another sampling technique. Obtain calibration gas standards for each target compound to be analyzed.
Commercial cylinder gases certified by the manufacturer to be accurate to within 1 percent of the certified label value are preferable, although cylinder Es Inutil - Psiglo - I & II (CDr) certified by the manufacturer to 2 percent accuracy are allowed. Another option allowed by this method is for the tester to obtain high concentration certified cylinder gases and then use a dilution system meeting the requirements of Test Method40 CFR Part 51Appendix M to make multi-level calibration gas standards.
Prepare or obtain enough calibration standards so that there are three different concentrations of each organic compound expected to be measured in the source sample. For each organic compound, select those concentrations that bracket the concentrations expected in the source samples. A calibration standard may contain more than one organic compound.
If samples are collected in adsorbent tubes and extracted using solvent extraction, prepare or obtain standards in the same solvent used for the sample extraction procedure. Verify the stability of all standards for the time periods they are used. Allow the sample loop pressure to equilibrate to atmospheric pressure, and activate the injection valve. Record the standard concentration, attenuator factor, injection time, chart speed, retention time, peak area, sample loop temperature, column temperature, and carrier gas flow rate.
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Fortum Fortum is a leading clean-energy company that provides its customers with electricity, heating and cooling as well as smart solutions to improve resource efficiency. We want to engage our customers and society to join the change for a cleaner world. We employ some 9, professionals in the Nordic and Baltic countries, Russia, Poland and. Army Reserve Medical Command Grand Avenue, Pinellas Park, Florida General Inquiries: Media Inquiries: U.S. Army Reserve Legal Command Snouffer School Road, Gaithersburg, Maryland Apr 17, · A whole series of Nb compounds was prepared from syntheses in Cu/Al melts with Nb 3 B 3 C, Nb 4 B 3 C 2, Nb 7 B 4 C 4, and Nb 7 B 6 C 3. Their crystal structures can be explained easily with a simple building‐set principle based on the binary components NbC, Nb 2 B 3, and Nb 3 B 4.
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Jan 05, · Catalyst and reaction medium in one: that is the dual role of supercritical water (scH 2 O) in the disproportionation of benzaldehyde. In the near‐critical region the reaction rates (k p2) are significantly greater than those found in water and aqueous NaOH (see picture, values for scH 2 O and water are at 25 MPa), also unequivocal chemical evidence for the participation of the OH − ion. A unique hydrogen‐bond topology is reported for the trimer of 2‐fluoroethanol by Y. Xu et al. in their Communication on page ff. Chirped‐pulse and cavity‐based Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy are used to show that the trimer is heterochiral with an open OH⋅⋅⋅OH H‐bond arrangement. This result is in stark contrast to trimers of other small alcohols and water.
Jan 05, · Catalyst and reaction medium in one: that is the dual role of supercritical water (scH 2 O) in the disproportionation of benzaldehyde. In the near‐critical region the reaction rates (k p2) are significantly greater than those found in water and aqueous NaOH (see picture, values for scH 2 O and water are at 25 MPa), also unequivocal chemical evidence for the participation of the OH − ion.
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The sample volume ranges were selected in order to ensure a 35 to 60 percent consumption of the 20 ml of N iodine (thus ensuring a N Na 2 S 2 O 3 titer of approximately 7 to 12 ml). The sample volumes for various H 2 S concentrations can be estimated by dividing the approximate ppm-liters desired for a given concentration range by the.
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